The remedy to very long paragraphs needs to be brutal.
How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from Sources As you identify and evaluate research sources, you must make accurate notes of information you think might be useful in your essay. There are many ways to take notes—from jotting down single words or phrases to photocopying entire articles.
There are three ways of incorporating source information into your own writing: When you summarize or paraphrase, you restate in your own words the idea s of another speaker or writer. When you quote, you reproduce the exact words of another speaker or writer. Of the three ways to introduce ideas from a source into your research papers for college and university, direct quotation is the one you should use least—except for literary essays see Writing the Literary Essay on this Web site.
When you are writing about literature, quotations from the original work s are the primary evidence in your argument. Literary essays can also rely on quotations from secondary sources critics. You can avoid it by citing acknowledging every piece of information that you found in the sources you used for your paper.
Use an approved documentation style. See Format and Documentation on this Web site. Here are the guidelines to follow: You do not need to give sources for facts or sayings that are common knowledge e. Any words taken directly from a source must be marked as a quotation, and you must give full information about the source.
Facts, opinions, and ideas that you found on the Internet, in a book or article, or in any other source must be acknowledged even if you express the information in your own words. See Format and Documentation.
Facts, opinions, and ideas that you remember reading or hearing somewhere cannot be presented as your own. If you cannot find and acknowledge a source, you should not use the information.
Google is helpful in tracking down sources of information. You shorten condense the most important idea or ideas in the source material and express them in your own words. The purpose of summarizing is to give the reader an overview of the article, report, or chapter.
If the reader is interested in the details, he or she will read the original. Note-taking in school is one form of summarizing. Thesis statements and topic sentences are essentially summaries; so, often, are conclusions. In committee, group, or teamwork, imagination and creativity are valuable, but the ability to summarize is even more so.
There is no communication skill that you will need or use more than summarizing. In conversation, we all summarize every day: But most of us are not very good at summarizing efficiently, especially in writing. Written summaries, unlike conversational ones, require planning.
You need to practise it. Back to top How to Write a Summary The work you summarize can be as short as a paragraph or a poem, or as long as a book.
Before you can summarize anything, you need to read and understand it. The material you summarize is usually an article, essay, or chapter or some portion of it.
A typical summary for an undergraduate research paper ranges from a few sentences to one or two paragraphs. Write the meanings above the words they apply to.
Now read the article or essay again—and again, if necessary. Keep reading it until you have identified the main ideas and formed a mental picture of their arrangement. Highlight the title, subtitle, and headings if there are any.
The title often identifies the subject of the article, and a subtitle usually indicates its focus.The introduction is a description of the problem addressed by the research paper. Define the question and topic that you address in the paper.
Establish the objective of your paper in order to set the direction for the rest of the paper. The first paragraph should be compressive to anyone interested in the particular branch of housing research. Eating and Drinking At Your Desk? Keep The Noise Down! Pay Attention To The Noise You Make While Eating and Drinking.
No, That’s Not Being Picky.
WORKING PAPER: IMPACT OF NWP’S COLLEGE-READY WRITERS PROGRAM 1 Abstract By , all 50 states and the District of Columbia had adopted college- and career-ready standards in English language arts and mathematics, placing a greater emphasis on argument writing to prepare students for life after high school.
When learning to write research papers, students tend to use quotations more often than paraphrases or summaries to introduce other writers’ ideas into their own work. In fact, a good research paper (unless it is an essay on a work of literature) usually relies more heavily on summary and paraphrase than it .
Work Through Your Paper Methodically; Once you've collected all your research documents and determined which specific points you're going to be making, it's time to actually write your paper.
Work through it with a methodical mindset. Creating an outline can help you do that, but it's not required. This is the character sheet for the Teen Titans villains as they appear in the animated series of the same name.
See here for the characters from the Titans comic books.