The many factors that caused the outbursts of violence through the mafia

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The many factors that caused the outbursts of violence through the mafia

Violence as a Source of Trust in Mafia-type Organizations By Henry Farrell on July 11, Criminals have great difficulty in trusting each other — they often have conflicting interests and may sometimes have incentives to inform on each other but have no very good equivalent of the state to enforce contracts.

One traditional solution is to rely on family members, who are presumably more trustworthy. But there are others — scholars such as Thomas Schelling and Diego Gambetta have speculated that shared information about violent acts might help to cement cooperation.

If I know that you have committed a violent act, and you know that I have committed a violent act, we each have information on each other that we might threaten to use if relations go sour Schelling notes that one of the most valuable rights in business relations is the right to be sued — this is a functional equivalent.

Paolo Campana and Federico Varese have a very nice new article in Rationality and Society which tests how both traditional sources of trust such as family ties, and less conventional sources such as shared information about violence, might work among real criminals.

This article relies on two unique datasets we have collected on two Mafialike organizations: Kinship does indeed have a statistically significant effect in the Camorra clan: This finding confirms the importance of kinship within this particular Mafia.

Extended kinship appears to play a role in the case of the Russian—Italian group.

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Rather more surprisingly, in both models violence does have an impact on tie formation between two actors. Having shared information about violent acts increases the frequency of contacts occurring among two actors. This would suggest that even in clans made of relatives, having discussed violence is a better predictor of cooperation than kinship itself.

This further suggests that there is nothing ontological in the role of kinship in organized crime. When better and more reliable mechanisms to increase commitment are available, criminals will use them, just as organizations in advanced societies tend to rely on merit rather than kinship when recruiting employees.

There is additional, non-statistical evidence of the use of violence as a form of credible commitment.

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The boss of the Camorra clan discussed here would instruct all his men to shoot together at the same time when committing a murder. Everybody in the firing squad had to fire at least one shot.The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph.

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The many factors that caused the outbursts of violence through the mafia

Don't be fooled by the reviews claiming this is an artsy giallo. This is a surreal and extremely tactile movie about female sexuality and senses, with no exploitation, by way of an homage to classic Italian horror. Prohibition caused the level of violence in organized crime to increase dramatically.

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The plot concerns a platoon of American and British soldiers, led by Major Lexman (Richard Harrison), who are sent to the Middle East to blow up a Nazi fuel depot.

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