The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenet—indeed, a passion—of the environmental movement, especially in the United States. For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the earth.
I haven't heard of nor seen the horn you write about. I would love to see a picture of it, even measurements as well, if they are available. My fax is I doubt if the Larousse book you mention is in our library.
I own only the Larousse Int'l Illus. What is "obvious" to us I am frequently reminded must be carefully examined for bias. Even whether this ancient bone is a flute has been denied. To me, it's obviously a flute. But I've been forced to defend the obvious as if it wasn't obvious.
Perhaps the horn could be denied as a flute as well, unless we can defend the obvious there as well. As far as the open-closed ends issue goes, Match 2 in the essay assumes an open-ended flute. Match 1 in the essay considers that it could have been a closed flute.
The normal length of a femur is quite long.
So we felt it was reasonable to assume that it was not part of a short ocarina type instrument. We'll never know unless they find the rest of the object.
Where I deal with issues of "could have been" is where I tried my best to obtain reasonably accurate probabilities for certain statements in this essay. What I have held as conclusive in the essay is that the holes are consistent with those of a diatonic scale scale IF the flute is long enough.
What I held as probable is that the hole spacing reflects not so much an ocarina or 4 or 5 note scale with a half-tone or other pitch if it was a short flutebut a larger scale, likely parallel to the diatonic scale. I can't conclude this, but hold it probable for reasons examined in some of the correspondence note: There I pointed to the widespread cross-cultural fact of pentatonic and 7-note diatonic scales in our own history and the acoustic basis for these scales as justification for the probabilities being higher regarding the Neanderthal bone matching a diatonic rather than matching a more obscure or hitherto unknown scale.
I held match 2 as probable open-end minor scale over match 1 major, closed endbecause removing marrow is easier when the ends are broken off rather than drilling holes when marrow is still in the bone, and sucking it out. And also because the dimensions of the fit are closer to an acoustic scale than the dimensions of match 1.
Besides, how on earth could one measure these effects without the entire bone? Having said that, I and my partner, Mike Finley, nevertheless would be interested in receiving copies of the work and experiments you've done or a summary of it on these matters as we certainly have developed a need to understand this ever since we embarked on this essay.
Someday, I expect a replica will be made of the old bone 43, yrs old, current estimate. At various lengths, it will be blown, and we'll see what the pitches really are. The best I could do was to simply work with the hole spacings translated onto a straight irish flute tin whistle barrel.
It IS "as if there has been some sort of taboo on the subject. That non-literate societies' music will be also be branded "primitive" or judged "inferior" against some evolutionary time-line of progressive change toward "final perfection. But to little avail. Anyway, the word "origin" implies an evolution and comparisons that they'd rather resist; And they also add: It's all speculative and we weren't there, and can never really know anyway.
The real characterization is this: I have discovered very satisfactory answers to questions that first plagued me as a youngster first studying music.
Why was the musical scale so different? I was told the octave did get divided by equidistant halftones. But why 12, instead of the usual 5 or l0 as in our thousands-year-old number system? And why 7 notes in the diatonic instead of five or ten?
And why wasn't the pentatonic 5-note scale also equally divided, instead of having the two large tone-and-half gaps where the 3rd and 7ths could fit? Looking into the world of music and musicology failed to provide any answers that didn't raise more questions.
It was then that I began to discover NOT set out fixedly to "prove" that the world of musicology seemed largely divorced from other disciplines, and in fact, the answers I gleaned from the outside disciplines reinforced each other regarding acoustics and evolutionary cultural processes -- while at the same time these disciplines made musicology and ethnomusicology look like some kind of archaic alchemist's anachronism rather than a science or "ology" or a real search for truth.
Indeed, the resistance I found among musicologists revealed it was not facts, but biased politics, designed to defend the world of 20th century "serious" music composing at all costs, that motivated musicology to a degree that was alarming to me. Let's look at the answers I found specifically, and the issues posed to me:The Paleolithic and Neolithic Stone Ages The first scholars that existed named the whole period of human devolvement the “Stone Age.” The stone age is divided into three periods which are Paleolithic which means the old Greek age, Mesolithic and Neolithic which is the new Greek age.
Devil In The Dark () The Horta was an example of Silicon life.; Now we are really sailing off into terra incognito. "Here be dragons" and all that.
But if you have starships, you almost have to have aliens (Isaac Asimov's Foundation trilogy being the most notable exception).The "science" is called Astrobiology, the famous "science in search of a subject".
The Paleolithic and Neolithic culture can be compared in many ways because the Paleolithic culture was a gateway for the Neolithic era. They also contrast because the Neolithic people transitioned and advanced the skills of the Paleolithic people to become a more settled agrarian people.
In the Paleolithic Era, plants were used for medicines and food. Animals were used for hunting. However, in the Neolithic Era, plants were used for food in the New Stone Age, however, the difference was that plants were grown on farms.
Animals were used for domestication as well as other purposes. The Paleolithic Age The notion that Paleolithic man was a cave man is preposterous. They were physically the same us people today, we are now and were than Homo sapiens/5(1). The Evolution of Diet.
By Ann Gibbons. Photographs by Matthieu Paley. Some experts say modern humans should eat from a Stone Age menu. What's on it may surprise you.