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Following are the important geographical factors influencing the location of industries. The significance of raw materials in manufacturing industry is so fundamental that it needs no emphasising. Indeed, the location of industrial enterprises is sometimes determined simply by location of the raw materials.
Modem industry is so complex that a wide range of raw materials is necessary for its growth. Further we should bear in mind that finished product of one industry may well be the raw material of another.
For example, pig iron, produced by smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry. Industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials in their primary stage in large quantities are usually located near the supply of the raw materials. It is true in the case of raw materials which lose weight in the process of manufacture or which cannot bear high transport cost or cannot be transported over long distances because of their perishable nature.
This has been recognised since when Alfred Weber published his theory of location of industry. The jute mills in West Bengal, sugar mills in Uttar Pradesh, cotton textile mills in Maharashtra and Gujarat are concentrated close to the sources of raw materials for this very reason.
Industries like iron and steel, which use very large quantities of coal and iron ore, losing lot of weight in the process of manufacture, are generally located near the sources of coal and iron ore. Some of the industries, like watch and electronics industries use very wide range of light raw materials and the attractive influence of each separate material diminishes.
Regular supply of power is a pre-requisite for the localisation of industries. Coal, mineral oil and hydro-electricity are the three important conventional sources of power. Most of the industries tend to concentrate at the source of power.
The iron and steel industry which mainly depends on large quantities of coking coal as source of power are frequently tied to coal fields. Others like the electro-metallurgical and electro-chemical industries, which are great users of cheap hydro-electric power, are generally found in the areas of hydro-power production, for instance, aluminium industry.
As petroleum can be easily piped and electricity can be transmitted over long distances by wires, it is possible to disperse the industry over a larger area.
Industries moved to southern states only when hydro-power could be developed in these coal-deficient areas.
Thus, more than all other factors affecting the location of large and heavy industries, quite often they are established at a point which has the best economic advantage in obtaining power and raw materials. Tata Iron and Steel Plant at Jamshedpur, the new aluminium producing units at Korba Chhattisgarh and Renukoot Uttar Pradeshthe copper smelting plant at Khetri Rajasthan and the fertilizer factory at Nangal Punjab are near the sources of power and raw material deposits, although other factors have also played their role.
No one can deny that the prior existence of a labour force is attractive to industry unless there are strong reasons to the contrary. Labour supply is important in two respects a workers in large numbers are often required; b people with skill or technical expertise are needed.
Estall and Buchanan showed in that labour costs can vary between 62 per cent in clothing and related industries to 29 per cent in the chemical industry; in the fabricated metal products industries they work out at 43 per cent.
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In our country, modem industry still requires a large number of workers in spite of increasing mechanisation. There is no problem in securing unskilled labour by locating such industries in large urban centres.
Although, the location of any industrial unit is determined after a careful balancing of all relevant factors, yet the light consumer goods and agro-based industries generally require a plentiful of labour supply.
Transport by land or water is necessary for the assembly of raw materials and for the marketing of the finished products.
The development of railways in India, connecting the port towns with hinterland determined the location of many industries around Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. As industrial development also furthers the improvement of transport facilities, it is difficult to estimate how much a particular industry owes to original transport facilities available in a particular area.A 4 year prospective study of the factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours (abnormal behaviour) in a population of young Thoroughbred and part-Thoroughbred.
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, Tsai and Huang ). Factors Influencing the Location of Industries: Geographical and Non-Geographical Factors! Many important geographical factors involved in the location of individual industries are of relative significance, e.g., availability of raw materials, power resources, water, labour, markets and the.
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