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Children, Cancer, and the Environment Leukemia Leukemia is a cancer of the tissues that produce blood cells, resulting in abnormal blood cells. Leukemia appears to be related to damage to chromosomes or genes 1. The damage disrupts the process by which blood cells achieve their final and functional form.
Leukemia is the most common kind of cancer in children Leukemia also causes more deaths than any other form of cancer in children. Fortunately, improved treatment methods have greatly reduced deaths from leukemia.
Leukemia rates are higher for white children than black children. There are several forms of leukemia, two of which are particularly important in children.
ALL is also called acute lymphocytic leukemia. From tothe incidence rate was 59 cases per million children under five. ALL reaches its greatest frequency in children between 2 and 6, with a peak of more than 80 cases per million children per year at ages 3 to 4 2.
Rates then decline to age Scientists believe that this pattern means that two genetic changes are needed to cause the disease and that one occurs before a child is born. However, many scientists believe that this change represents a genuine increase in the frequency of the disease that could be caused by environmental factors.
It is also called acute myelogenous leukemia AML. It is the form of leukemia most commonly diagnosed in children less than one year old. Rates are higher at ages and in late adolescence 2. Known and Suspected Causes of Leukemia Both pre-natal and post-natal exposure to ionizing radiation particularly X rays can cause leukemia in children.
Pre-natal exposure to X rays has been greatly reduced with the adoption of ultrasound for screening in pregnant women. Several studies link pesticide exposure by both parents and children to leukemia. The pattern of disease suggests that some damage to chromosomes may occur before the child is born 3.
Children born to parents employed in certain occupations that have chemical exposures are more likely to have leukemia 4.
Chemicals, specifically including benzene, have been shown to cause leukemia in adults. A recent review of 48 epidemiological studies concluded that the strongest evidence for a relationship between a parent's exposure to chemicals other than pesticides and childhood leukemia was for solvents, paints, and employment in motor vehicle-related occupations 5.
These studies tend to look at the occupation of fathers more often than those of mothers, despite the fact that exposures of mothers are likely to be at least as important. For occupations of the mothers, the review concluded that the most significant were employment in personal services industries, in metal processing, and in textiles.
All three categories had significantly elevated risks. For occupations of fathers, employment in painting led to increased risk of leukemia in a child. Some studies show that exposure to electric and magnetic fields EMFs is associated with increased risk of leukemia.
There has been some evidence for an association between leukemia and smoking by parents, though the largest study performed to date did not find that smoking by parents, either before birth or afterwards, increased risk of ALL or AML in children 6.
Follow-up studies of people who survived the detonation of atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki found that the risk of leukemia was higher for those exposed to radiation. The risk is also higher for those exposed at an earlier age 7.Causes of Climate Change Climate change is a long-term shift in weather conditions identified by changes in temperature, precipitation, winds, and other indicators.
Climate change can involve both changes in average conditions and changes in variability, including, for example, extreme events. A heart attack occurs when the flow of blood to the heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked. If blood flow is not restored, heart muscle begins to die.
Learn more about causes, risk factors, screening and prevention, signs and symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for heart attack, and how to . Some people with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have one or more known risk factors, but many do not.
Even when a person has one or more risk factors, it's very hard to know if it actually caused the cancer. Certain changes in the DNA in normal bone marrow cells can cause them to become leukemia cells.
Environmental Change and Acute Conflict I 77 of sub-issues, especially if we define “security” broadly to include human physical, social, and economic well-being.* We can narrow the scope of this research problem by focusing on how environmental change affects conflict, rather than .
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.. Its causes are numerous. Generally it occurs because of damage to the kidney tissue caused by decreased kidney blood flow (kidney ischemia) from any cause (e.g., low blood pressure), exposure to substances harmful to the kidney, an inflammatory process in.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (a childhood disease). Sometimes considered a children's disease, leukemia usually occurs in adults older than 65 years. The relationship between leukemia and the environment is still not well understood; however, studies have determined that exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation has been linked to specific.