Late s - United States abolitionist movement begins. Early s - Many states reduce their number of capital crimes and build state penitentiaries.
Many writers see the massive depopulation of the indigenous population of the Americas after as a clear-cut case of the genocide. Other writers, however, contend that European and U. To a significant extent, disagreements about the pervasiveness of genocide in the history of the post-Columbian Western Hemisphere, in general, and U.
Conservative definitions emphasize intentional actions and policies of governments that result in very large population losses, usually from direct killing. More liberal definitions call for less stringent criteria for intent, focusing more on outcomes.
They do not necessarily require direct sanction by state authorities; rather, they identify societal forces and actors. They also allow for several intersecting forces of destruction, including dispossession and disease. Because debates about genocide easily devolve into quarrels about definitions, an open-ended approach to the question of genocide that explores several phases and events provides the possibility of moving beyond the present stalemate.
However one resolves the question of genocide in American Indian history, it is important to recognize that European and U.
These include violence resulting directly from settler expansion, intertribal violence frequently aggravated by colonial intrusionsenslavement, disease, alcohol, loss of land and resources, forced removals, and assaults on tribal religion, culture, and language.
The configuration and impact of these forces varied considerably in different times and places according to the goals of particular colonial projects and the capacities of colonial societies and institutions to pursue them.
The capacity of Native people and communities to directly resist, blunt, or evade colonial invasions proved equally important. Did the actions and policies of Europeans and U.
Americans toward Indians qualify as genocide or not? Academics, students, citizens, in short, almost everyone has an opinion on the subject. Some are certain that the answer to the question is yes, that the massive depopulation of indigenous America after was a clear-cut case of genocide.
Others, however, are equally certain that the answer is no, namely that European and U. American actions and policies toward Indians were at least sometimes deplorable but cannot be labeled as genocidal.
This essay begins with the premise that the issue of genocide in American Indian history is far too complex to yield a simple yes-or-no answer.
The relevant history, after all, is a long one more than five hundred years involving hundreds of indigenous nations and several European and neo-European empires and imperial nation-states.
While it would be absurd to reduce this history to any single category, genocide included, it would be reasonable to predict that genocide was a part of this history. With this in mind, the essay invites readers to resist a tendency toward a quick or easy resolution of the question of genocide in American Indian history and to engage in an open-ended exploration.
The object is not a definitive answer but a clarification of the issues. More than many debates, those about genocide often center on definitions. Because of this fact, readers might expect an essay on genocide to begin by discussing various definitions of the term and related terms such as ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide and proceed either to argue for one definition as authoritative or to propose a new one.The Death Penalty Today This chart chronicles the United State's use of the death penalty over the past four centuries.
The chart highlights the gradual rise in use of capital punishment in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries; a peak of executions in the early 20th century; moratorium; and finally, a trend toward more executions in recent years.
Death in Literature Death in Literature essays discuss the common theme of death in different works of literature. Of the two inevitable things in life, it is perhaps not surprising that numerous writers have attempted to tackle the subject of death.
Death remains the great mystery of existence, and death in literature is as old as literature itself. In that year, England and Wales had a birth rate of , but by it had fallen to an estimated Similarly, the death rate has fallen since The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.
In , the death rate stood at 19 , whereas by it had almost halved, to 10 Early Questions About the Death Penalty. Colonial Times. Those who did not support the death penalty found support in the writings of European theorists Montesquieu, Voltaire and Bentham, and English Quakers John Bellers and John Howard.
However, it was Cesare Beccaria's essay, On Crimes and Punishment, that had an especially . The theme of death has always been a presence in American writings – from early colonial diaries and through the nineteen century – because death was perceived to be ever present in people’s lives.
Death reached into all corners of life, striking people of all ages, not just the old. In the healthiest regions, one child in ten died during the first year of life. In less healthy areas, like Boston, the figure was three in /5(12).