What were once evergreen forests and grasslands in the southern Western Ghats have turned into extensive tea estates as far as the eye can see. When was the last time you saw a continuous stretch of forest in India — wilderness as far as your eyes can see?
Relationships with local people Serious Concern While it is clear that there is much support from many local populations including academics and committed conservationists belonging to a variety of NGOs, there is also conflict with local people, particularly in some places in Kodagu and Karnataka.
Legal framework Some Concern The 39 component parts of this serial property fall under a number of protection regimes, ranging from Tiger Reserves, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Reserved Forests.
The Western Ghats (WG) of India is an interesting case study to investigate regional endemism patterns (Bossuyt et al., , Gimaret-Carpentier et al., , Ramesh and Pascal, ). This almost km-long escarpment parallel to the south-west coast of the Indian peninsula has a high level of heterogeneity in its environmental conditions. Conservation International was a pioneer in defining and promoting the concept of hotspots. In , just one year after scientist Norman Myers wrote the paper that introduced the hotspots concept, CI adopted the idea of protecting these incredible places as the guiding principle of our investments. Mar 27, · The nearly 1,kilometre-long Western Ghats range, which runs along the country’s western coast, spans six states — Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
All components are owned by the State and are subject to stringent protection under laws including the Wildlife Protection Act ofthe Indian Forest Act ofand the Forest Conservation Act Through these laws the components are under the control of the Forestry Department and the Chief Wildlife Warden, thus the legal status is considered adequate.
The Forest Conservation Act provides adequate regulatory framework to protect them from infrastructure development. For example, research into the population status of the endangered Lion-tailed Macaque in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve noted the critical importance of Reserved Forests in facilitating the movement of these primates within the protected area network Sushma et al.
Enforcement Data Deficient The property is adequately staffed with well qualified personnel and some details of enforcement activities such as patrolling are given, however, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of enforcement.
The challenges of effective enforcement remain high due to the high population pressure on the property and its fragmented configuration. Integration into regional and national planning systems Data Deficient It is not clear how the property relates to, or is influenced by, the surrounding planning systems at national, state and local levels.
The nomination dossier argued that all components were managed under the prescriptions of the site-specific management and working plans of the State forest departments and there is little scope for the provisions of any other plan Nomination, Given the Conservation of western ghats of an overarching management framework and the complexity of the serial configuration over 4 different stateds, further examination is needed to understand how the property is integrated into wider planning systems.
Management system Serious Concern All the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries are managed as per the prescriptions of their individual approved management plans and Reserved Forests are managed in accordance with their individual approved working plans Nomination, However, these plans are very complex and vary from site to site so it is not clear how each component part is managed, nor how they contribute to an overall management strategy for the property IUCN Evaluation, The overarching management system of the multi-stakeholder Western Ghats Natural Heritage Management Committee is supposed to guide the management of the property as a whole SP, Effective coordination of management across the multiple components of a 1, km serial site remains a significant challenge.
For example, the challenge for the conservation of the Lion-tailed Macaque in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve the largest protected area in the serial property is to identify, monitor and restore connectivity between this protected area and the surrounding forest reserves and to develop more cohesive inter-State conservation plans for key species such as these Sushma et al.
Management effectiveness No studies on the management effectiveness of the property have been seen. Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations Data Deficient Recommendations at time of inscription to take into account the outcomes of scientific studies of institutes specialized in the field, and their recommendations; to ensure proactive tourism management in anticipation of increased future visitation, and to ensure that visitation remains within the capacity of the property; to ensure any proposed infrastructure developments are subject to rigorous prior impact assessments, to determine if they are appropriate; and to establish improved coordination and integration between the components, particularly through the preparation and implementation of an overarching management plan or framework for the serial property as a whole Decision 36COM 8B.
At the time of this assessment no State of Conservation reports have been undertaken for the property. A State Party report is required to establish if these recommendations have been implemented.
Boundaries Some Concern The property includes a number of disturbed areas including settlements, dams, artificial reservoirs, plantations and agricultural areas which are innappropiate for the core area of a natural World Heritage area IUCN Evaluation, The State Party modified the boundaries between the original nomination in and the inscription in 11 of the 39 components were modified.
It is also noted that the State Party proposed to add an additional 5 components in the State of Goa totalling 74, ha as a minor boundary modification before the 41st meeting of the WH Committee; however, the WH Committee did not approve this proposal and invited the State Party to submit the proposal as a new nomination for a significant boundary modification UNESCO, Sustainable finance Effective Funds are made available from budget allocations in Central and State budgets and other centrally sponsored schemes for all site elements of each Sub-cluster Nomination, Government funding mechanisms provide a more reliable source of funding to sustain and scale up community-based conservation actions than grant funding or philanthropic donations.
Government has significantly increased funding for research, while CEPF has significantly increased the availability of funding for conservation action by civil society.
The field staff are adequately trained in conservation and management techniques. This training is supplemented by periodic orientation courses by IGNFA offered to officers holding various levels of responsibility.
Sustainable use Serious Concern Joint forest management includes focused action on organizing the communities, empowering them and providing support for sustainable alternate livelihoods and enhanced income generation activities.
Capacity building efforts to make local communities practice ecologically sustainable and improved land use for enhanced productivity remains a prime concern Nomination, There are nonetheless ongoing concerns about forest loss through conversion and degradation as well as continued development pressure from industry in areas adjoining the property Vijayasoorya et al.
There also appears to be weak integration with national, state and local development planning Nomination, Education and interpretation programs Effective Interpretation centres and nature education and awareness camps have been designed to sensitize visitors towards nature and to appreciate conservation initiatives.
These facilities vary depending on the extent of tourist flow in each of the site elements Nomination, Tourism and visitation management Some Concern Visitor facilities include accommodation in inspection bungalows and dormitories Nomination, There are some concerns about tourism development in areas surrounding the property Stakeholder Consultation, Conservation of Western Ghats (GS Prelims and Mains 3 – Environment and Biodiversity) Recent News: The six Western Ghats States, including Kerala, have been restrained by the National Green Tribunal (NGT) from giving environmental clearance to.
A recent study on the Western Ghats highlights growing concerns over road construction in biodiversity-rich protected areas.
This adds to findings of earlier research studying the deleterious impact of roads and construction on conservation effectiveness. Mar 27, · The nearly 1,kilometre-long Western Ghats range, which runs along the country’s western coast, spans six states — Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Eastern Ghats Wildlife Society is a not-for-profit, non-government organization based at Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh with a mission to conserve the bio-diversity of Eastern Ghats hill ranges aided by research and education. It is estimated that as many as 10, elephants can be found in the Nilgiri Hills, in the southwestern part of the Western Ghats.
This region is also home to 10% of the world's tigers, making it an important area for the long-term conservation of this endangered species.
More like rolling hills than snow-covered mountains, the Western Ghats - stretching some 1,km from the north of Mumbai to the southern tip of India - is a biodiversity hotspot that contains a large proportion of the country's plant and animal species; many of which are only found here and nowhere else in .