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History and varieties Literary Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, has been strongly influenced by Sanskrit. Its standard form is based on the Khari Boli dialectfound to the north and east of Delhi.
Braj Bhashawhich was an important literary medium from the 15th to the 19th century, is often treated as a dialect of Hindi, as are Awadhi, Bagheli, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Chhattisgarhi, Garhwali, Haryanawi, Kanauji, Kumayuni, Magahi, and Marwari.
Within this zone, the degree to which regional languages resemble standard Hindi varies considerably. Maithili—the easternmost regional language of the Hindi belt—bears more historical resemblance to Article on environment day in hindi than to standard Hindi.
Likewise, Rajasthanithe westernmost language of the belt, in some respects resembles Gujarati more than standard Hindi. Nevertheless, the majority of speakers of these regional languages consider themselves to be speaking a Hindi dialect. Among other reasons, they note that these languages were grouped with Hindi by the British in an attempt to classify languages in the early days of British rule.
Furthermore, Hindi rather than one of the regional languages was chosen as the medium of instruction at the elementary-school level. In large part as a result of this colonial policy, members of the urban middle class and educated villagers throughout the zone claim to be speakers of Hindi because the use of these regional languages or dialects in public venues—that is, outside the circle of family and close friends—is perceived as a sign of inadequate education.
In other words, speaking standard Hindi gives as much status to people in this region as speaking English gives in the south of India; both are treated as languages of upward social mobility.
Thus, people in search of new jobs, marriages, and the like must use standard Hindi in everyday communication. In many cases, young people now have only a passive knowledge of the regional languages. Particularly since the s, the prevalence of mass media radio, television, and films and growing literacy have led to an increase in the number of native speakers of standard Hindi.
Occasionally there are demands for the formation of separate states for the speakers of one or another regional language.
For instance, when the demand for the formation of a separate state of Maithili speakers was raised in Bihar in the s and s, there was a counterdemand for the recognition of Angika in eastern Bihar and Bajjika in northwestern Bihar.
The successful demands for forming the new states of Chhattisgarh from territory once in Madhya Pradesh and Uttaranchal from territory in Uttar Pradesh was more sociopolitical than linguistic. Grammar Sanskrit and the Prakrit and Apabhramsha languages—the precursors of Hindi—are nominally and verbally inflected.
In the nominal realm, the adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun that it qualifies. This is less the case for Hindi because it was greatly influenced by Persianin which the adjective does not change as a result of a number change in the noun.
Instead, Hindi indicates number agreement via postpositions—small words that appear after nouns and function much like English prepositions. Hindi has also reduced the number of genders to two masculine and femininewhereas other Sanskrit-based languages, such as Gujarati and Marathihave retained the neuter gender as well.
Persian influence also caused the Hindi system of case marking to become simpler, reducing it to a direct form and an oblique form.
Postpositions are used to indicate the other case relations. The verbal inflection of Hindi is also simpler than that of the regional languages of the Hindi zone. Only the present and future indicative forms are fully conjugated in Hindi, while other tenses are indicated with the help of perfective and imperfective participles combined with the auxiliary verbs.
As the new immigrants settled and began to adjust to the Indian social environmenttheir languages—which were ultimately lost—enriched Khari Boli. Persian names for items of dress and bedding e.
Contact with the English language has also enriched Hindi. Many English words, such as button, pencil, petrol, and college are fully assimilated in the Hindi lexicon.Hindi language: Hindi language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
It is the preferred official language of India, although much national business is also done in English and the other languages recognized in the Indian constitution. In India, Hindi. Each one of us can contribute towards saving the environment by planting just one tree every-month.
5. We can make donations to NGOs that are engaged in planting trees, or in any-way working towards saving the environment.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani timberdesignmag.com written in the Devanagari script is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language.
It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Hindi language: Hindi language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the preferred official language of India, although much national business is also done in English and the other languages recognized in the Indian constitution.
In India, Hindi. The very first World Environment Day took place in , inspired by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment that took place the year before starting on June 5th. Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani timberdesignmag.com with the English language, Hindi written in the Devanagari script is the official language of India.
It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the .