Of note, while the Psychological Corporation believed the factor structure supported these four factors, Sattler had some doubts. The FSIQ can range from 40 at the lowest to at the highest. Three subtests can be given in modified forms to allow for additional examination of processing abilities. The test takes between 65 and 80 minutes to administer to most children, with more time required if the additional subtests are given or if the client is more intelligence, and less time required for clients suffering from Mental Retardation.
The details about these tools will be brief as books are written about each item. The most important reliability tool is a Pareto distribution based on money—specifically based on the cost of unreliability which directs attention to work on the most important money problem first.
A time based test method of increasing loads to quickly produce age-to-failure data with only a few data points are then scaled acceleration factors to reflect normal loads. The loads can be constant or step-stress conditions.
The benefit of accelerated testing is to save time and money while quantifying the relationships between stress and performance along with identifying design and manufacturing deficiencies to get useful data quickly and at low cost to determine the products strength limits by applying stresses high enough to stimulate failures.
Usually performed during the development of devices, components, or systems. Also applies to items that have been in service to obtain a metric needed to show how the item is performing under heavy loads.
Accelerate testing is a useful method for solving old, nagging, problems within a production process. A tool for measuring the percent of time an item or system is in a state of readiness where it is operable and can be committed to use when called upon.
The measure is important for knowing the commitment of time for performing the mission and it usually only involves the use of arithmetic. Often the measurement tool is based on past experiences and the complement of the measurement tool addresses unavailability to perform the task.
In design of a system it is a calculated value and in operation of a system it is a performance index that is often easy to use and provides an index that is understandable to the average person. Use the KISS principle. Likewise, you can have high availability, but little output so team the metric with effectiveness to get the complete story.
The concept is derived from the human life experience involving infant mortality, chance failures, plus a wearout period of life since data for births and deaths is accumulated by government agencies. Failure rates are different for both people and equipment at different phases of operation and the medicine to be applied to both humans and equipment need to be considered for effectively treating the roots of the problem.
The concept is useful during design, operation, and maintenance of equipment and systems to understand the failure mechanisms Where: Reliability block diagram RBD models are graphical representations of a calculation methodology for reliability systems.
RBDs are used in upfront designs as a performance parameter and after the system is constructed to ferret out poor performing blocks that limit the system performance. Frequently used as a trade-off tool to search for the lowest long cost of ownership and to help sell alternative courses of action for moderating the effects of reliability issues or overcoming the poor performance by alternative designs where the results can be calculated before building the system as the results of the calculations provide knowledge about availability, maintenance interventions required for failures, and the number of spare parts required to sustain operations.
A measure of how well the product performance meets objectives. In short, how well are the outputs actually accomplished against a standard? Capability is a component of the effectiveness equation and usually under the control of production.
Data for this metric is frequently produced by the accounting department each month as a segment of the financial reports for the purpose of handling variances against the standards. Frequently in the effectiveness measure it is a weak point as a measure of how well the production process des the job for which it was purchased requiring substantial improvement that cannot be solved by the usual reliability and maintainability RAM tools.
However, this metric may be deficient from the original design an issue of design effectiveness of the system or from the way the system is operated an issue of use effectiveness.
Configuration control is involved with the management of change by providing traceability of failures back into the design standard.
If the design details are not specified, the design will not contain the requirements and thus implementation of the project will be hit or miss for achieving the desired end results, beginning with the conceptual design and resulting in the operating facility. Configuration control begins after the first design review to build an unbroken chain of traceability to aid in avoiding surprises in the field which would destroy the designed-in criteria for availability, reliability, maintainability, and cost effectiveness established as a portion of the original design criteria.
Frequently these documentation details are assembled into a dossier with third party witnessing for use in validating conformance to the design requirements and provided to the owner of the equipment as witness documents.
Contracting For Reliability- What: Tell your vendors what you want, and want what you say. Provide explanations of the objectives in written contracts in terms the vendors will understand. Thus, it is important to be specific in the features the design must manifest.
Be specific about requirements for building reliability block diagramsusing quality function deploymentperforming failure mode and effects analysisconducting fault tree analysisand finally, conducting design reviews for reliability.
Write the specifications before procurement begins. Plan to spend time with your own purchasing department to explain the details and sell the team on the financial advantages for including reliability requirements into the specifications. Likewise, spend time selling your vendors on the requirements and why they are stated.
These are up front decisions to avoid replication of previous problems that were built into previous designs and never corrected. Cost Of Unreliability- What: The cost of unreliability is a big-picture view of system failure costs, described in annual terms, for a manufacturing plant as if the key elements were reduced to a series block diagram for simplicity.
If the system IS sold out, then the cost of unreliability must include all appropriate business costs such as lost gross margin plus repair costs, scrap incurred, etc.
If the system is NOT sold out, and make-up time is available in the financial year, then lost gross margin for the failure cannot be counted.
For new a new plant, this can be a design criteria to limit costs of unreliability for competitive reasons in the marketplace.The weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than timberdesignmag.com notion of weighted mean plays a role in descriptive statistics and also occurs in a more general form in several other areas of mathematics.
Calculate Weibull Mean and Variance How to Calculate the Weibull Distribution Mean and Variance For our use of the Weibull distribution, we typically use the shape and scale parameters, β . Definition: The arithmetic mean of a set of data is found by taking the sum of the data, and then dividing the sum by the total number of values in the set.
A mean is commonly referred to as an average. Indexes of the WISC IV. Verbal Comprehension Index. The VCI is a measure of verbal concept formation. It assesses children's ability to listen to a question, draw upon learned information from both formal and informal education, reason through an answer, and express their thoughts aloud.
x i being the result of the i-th measurement and being the arithmetic mean of the n results considered." The above definition is for estimating the standard deviation for n values of a sample of a population and is always calculated using n The arithmetic mean is the simplest and most widely used measure of a mean, or average.
It simply involves taking the sum of a group of numbers, then dividing that sum by the count of the numbers.