The Hertzog government achieved a major goal in when the British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster, which removed the last vestiges of British legal authority over South Africa. Three years later the South African… Racial segregation, sanctioned by law, was widely practiced in South Africa beforebut the National Partywhich gained office that year, extended the policy and gave it the name apartheid. The Group Areas Act of established residential and business sections in urban areas for each race, and members of other races were barred from living, operating businesses, or owning land in them.
Apartheid legislation NP leaders argued that South Africa did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: Such groups were split into 13 nations or racial federations.
White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups.
The state passed laws that paved the way for "grand apartheid", which was centred on separating races on a large scale, by compelling people to live in separate places defined by race.
This strategy was in part adopted from "left-over" British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war. This created the black-only "townships" or "locations", where blacks were relocated to their own towns.
In addition, "petty apartheid" laws were passed. The principal apartheid laws were as follows. This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived according to race.
Each race was allotted its own area, which was used in later years as a basis of forced removal. Under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act ofmunicipal grounds could be reserved for a particular race, creating, among other things, separate beaches, buses, hospitals, schools and universities.
Signboards such as "whites only" applied to public areas, even including park benches. The Suppression of Communism Act of banned any party subscribing to Communism. The act defined Communism and its aims so sweepingly that anyone who opposed government policy risked being labelled as a Communist.
Since the law specifically stated that Communism aimed to disrupt racial harmony, it was frequently used to gag opposition to apartheid. Disorderly gatherings were banned, as were certain organisations that were deemed threatening to the government.
Education was segregated by the Bantu Education Actwhich crafted a separate system of education for black South African students and was designed to prepare black people for lives as a labouring class. Existing universities were not permitted to enroll new black students.
The Afrikaans Medium Decree of required the use of Afrikaans and English on an equal basis in high schools outside the homelands.
So-called "self—governing Bantu units" were proposed, which would have devolved administrative powers, with the promise later of autonomy and self-government. It also abolished the seats of white representatives of black South Africans and removed from the rolls the few blacks still qualified to vote.
The Bantu Investment Corporation Act of set up a mechanism to transfer capital to the homelands to create employment there. Legislation of allowed the government to stop industrial development in "white" cities and redirect such development to the "homelands".Another reason why apartheid was seen as much worse than segregation, was that apartheid was introduced in a period when other countries were moving away from racist policies.
Before World War Two the Western world was not as critical of racial discrimination, and Africa was colonized in this period.
South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations Lauren Ploch Analyst in African Affairs rule under apartheid, a system of racial segregation, the Republic of South Africa is firmly established as a regional power. South Africa is poised to have a substantial impact on the economic and political future of Africa.
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The History of Apartheid in South Africa. South Africa (see map) is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources including fertile farmlands and unique mineral timberdesignmag.com African mines are world leaders in the production of diamonds and .
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Racial segregation and white supremacy had become central aspects of South African policy long before apartheid began. The controversial Land Act, passed three years after South Africa gained its independence, marked the beginning of territorial segregation by forcing black Africans to live in reserves and making it illegal for them to work as .