Comorbidity Subtypes and specifiers for each disorder.
What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers. Explanations for nicotine addiction: Explanations for gambling addiction: Most of these only consider addiction to drugs chemical addictionfor example: However, loss of control is subjective and raises ethical issues since it suggests a certain level of culpability and blame.
To fully understand the process of addiction we need to consider the full range of psychological, biological, social and cultural variables, as well as consider the individual. Behavioural addictions Can behavioural addictions such as gambling be classified similarly to chemical addiction?
Clinical criteria of addiction Carnes A behaviour that is out of control Severe consequences Inability to stop despite these consequences Persistent pursuit of self-destructive or risky behaviour Desire to stop the behaviour Use of the behaviour as a coping strategy Increasing levels of the behaviour needed to get the same effect tolerance Lots of time spent both in trying to engage in the behaviour as well as recovery Severe mood changes when carrying out the behaviour Social, occupational, and recreational activities sacrificed Characteristics of an addiction Griffiths believes there to be six main characteristics to an addiction.
The Board has condensed these into the following: Physical and Psychological Dependence Physical dependence centres on the withdrawal symptoms experienced when the behavior or the drug stops.
In fact it is only when these symptoms are experienced that we can be certain that physical dependence has occurred. Generally these include anxiety, pain, irritability and shaking.
Psychological dependence or salience when the behaviour becomes the most important thing to the person. From the moment the addict wakes up their thinking is dominated by their next fix. Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Tolerance Usually associated with chemical addiction such as alcohol or heroin, this one can also be applied to behaviours.
Basically the addict needs bigger and bigger hits to get the same effect as they did initially with smaller amounts. A gambler will need to take bigger risks and place larger bets.
There is also cross-tolerance when tolerance to one chemical such as alcohol or nicotine results in larger doses of other chemicals, including medication. The best example is alcoholics who need larger doses of anaesthetic to render them unconscious.
Withdrawal Syndrome Refers to the collection of symptoms that are experienced when the addiction is not being fed.
Essentially these are the opposite of what the drug itself creates and usually involve pain, stress and anxiety. This collection of symptoms provides the motivation for maintenance via the process of negative reinforcement. The addict gets a rush or buzz when engaged in the behaviour.
The addict is also able to use their behaviour to bring about a mood change.Introduction to Spin Codes.
Even on an Honorable discharge, a "Spin Code" (SPN - Separation Program Number) can hurt a veteran's chance of being hired by a prospective employer. Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time.
Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization. Spanish pdf, Mb; absolute alcohol Ethanol containing not more than 1% by mass of timberdesignmag.com also: alcohol..
abstinence Refraining from drug use or (particularly) from drinking alcoholic beverages, whether as a matter of principle or for other reasons. Those who practise abstinence from alcohol are termed.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Criteria for Substance Abuse - According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), substance abuse is characterized as, “a pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment or distress” (American Psychological Association [APA], , para.
1). Results from a new study may lead to approval of what could be the first drug that ameliorates potentially deadly reactions in children with severe peanut allergies.
The biological Explanation of Nicotine Addiction Desensitization Hypothesis (Dani & Heinemann ) By now you’ll be familiar with neurochemicals such as dopamine and serotonin and have a good understanding of how these act on a synapse.